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NATIONAL VRS ETHNIC IDENTITY IN POST COLONIAL SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIA & COTE D’VOIRE

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BESKONECHNO

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2000 ₽

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ABSTRACT




In as much as Sub-Saharan African countries are not largely considered to be typical nation-states like European countries, there is some amount of contrasting features in the level of nationalism express by citizens. The main aim of this study is to find out the amount of variation in levels of nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa as explained by the existing theories of national and ethnic identity by comparing two countries namely Nigeria and Cote D’Ivoire. The research uses a correlational quantitative research design to conceivably measure the relationship between theories of nationalism and how it impacts levels of national identity. The study introduced the modernization theory to address the question of whether classic modernization theories actually explain the variation in the levels of nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results of the research concluded by supporting classic modernization theories that level of education, urbanization and being formally employed are all positively correlated to identifying with the nation. Other factors including the access to basic amenities, being part of core ethnic group and colonial legacy also affected levels of identifying within the state. Finally, the paper compares Nigeria and Cote D’Ivoire to dig out the differences and similarities and conclude by drawing lessons from the research.

Contents

ABSTRACT 2

DEDICATION 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 4

CHAPTER ONE (1) 7

1.0 INTRODUCTION 7

1.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTION 10

1.3 RESEARCH GOAL 12

1.4 NOVELTY OF RESEARCH 12

1.5 RATIONAL FOR CHOICE OF COUNTRIES 13

1.6 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE SELECTED COUNTRIES 13

1.6.1 FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA 14

1.6.2 NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA 15

1.6.3 REPUBLIC OF COTE D’IVOIRE: GENERAL BACKGROUND 17

1.6.4 NATIONAL IDENTITY IN COTE D’IVOIRE 19

CHAPTER TWO (2) LITERATURE REVIEW 23

2.0 CONSTRUCTION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY IN MODERN TIMES 23

2.2 COLONIAL LEGACY AND NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION 28

2.3 ETHNIC CORES AND STATE POWER 31

2.4 ETHNIC IDENTITY CRISIS IN AFRICA 33

2.5 LANGUAGE AND NATIONAL IDENTITY 35

2.6 NATIONAL IDENTITY AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION 37

2.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 38

2.7.1 MODERNIZATION THEORY 38

CHAPTER THREE (3) METHODOLOGY 44

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 44

3.2 CORRELATIONAL QUANTITATIVE METHOD 44

3.3 DATA ACQUISITION METHOD 45

3.4 DATA ANALYSIS 45

3.4.1 MEASURING VARIABLES 47

CHAPTER FOUR (4) 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 50

Table.1 Logic Regression Model at Aggregate level (Both Countries) 50



5 | P a g e

Table 2 Logistic model for ethnic or national identity, goodness-of-fit test 51

4.0.1 Comparison 55

Table 3 55

Table 5 Logic Regression Model 59

4.0.1.0 LIMITATIONS 61

CHAPTER (5) 63

5.0 CONCLUSION 63

REFERENCES 65

APPENDIX: 72

DESCRIPTIVE TABLE COTE D’IVOIRE 72

DESCRIPTIVE TABLE NIGERIA 75

Добрый день! Уважаемые студенты, Вашему вниманию представляется дипломная работа на тему: «NATIONAL VRS ETHNIC IDENTITY IN POST COLONIAL SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIA & COTE D’VOIRE»
Оригинальность работы 93%

REFERENCES



Afrobarometer (2018). Available online at www.afrobarometer.org.

Anderson, B. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread

of Nationalism. London: Verso Press.

Anderson, B. 1989. Imagined Communitties: Reflections on the Origins and

Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.

Azam, J. 2001. “The redistributive state and conflicts in Africa.” Journal of Peace Research, 38(4):429.

Ahlerup, P., & Isaksson, A. S. (2015). Ethno‐Regional Favouritism in S ub‐S aharan A frica. Kyklos, 68(2), 143-152.

Bates, R. 1983. “Modernization, Ethnic Competition, and the Rationality of Politics in Contemporary Africa.” In D. Rothchild and V.A. Olorunsola, Eds. State

versus Ethnic Claims: Africa Policy Dilemma. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. pp. 152-171

Barrett, M. (1996). English children’s acquisition of a European identity. InG. L.

Breakwell& E. Lyons (Eds.),Changing European identities: Social psychological

analysis of social change (pp. 349–369). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann

Barrett, M. (2005). National identities in children and young people. In S. Ding & K. Littleton (Eds.), Children’s personal and social development (pp. 181–220). Milton Keynes: The Open University/Blackwell.

Barrett, M., & Davis, S. C. (2008). Applying social identity and self-categorization

theories to children’s racial, ethnic, national and state identifications and attitudes.





65 | P a g e

In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism and the developing child (pp. 72–110). Hoboken: Wiley.

Breuilly, J.: Nationalism and the State. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1982 1993.

Collier, Paul 2009. Wars, Guns, and Votes. New York, N.Y.: Harper

Deutsch, Karl W. 1953. Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. Cambridge.

Deutsch, K. W. (1961). Social Mobilization and Political Development. The American Political Science Review, 55(3), 493–514.

Doob, L. W. (1962). From tribalism to nationalism in Africa. Journal of International Affairs, 144-155.

Eifert, B., E. Miguel, and D. Posner. 2008. “Political Competition and Ethnic Identification in Africa.” Unpublished manuscript.

Engelbert, P. 2000. State Legitimacy and Development in Africa. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Engelbert, P., S. Tarango, and M. Carter. 2002. “Dismemberment and Suffocation: A Contribution to the Debate on African Boundaries.” Comparative Political Studies, 35 (10): 1093-1118

Engelbert, Pierre. 2002. State Legitimacy and Development in Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner

Fearon, J. and D. Laitin. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review, 97: 75-90.





66 | P a g e

Fearon, J., K. Kasara, and D. Laitin. 2007. “Ethnic Minority Rule and Civil War Onset.” American Political Science Review, 101: 187-193.

Fearon, J. D. (2003). Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 195-222


Fenton, S. (2011). The


sociology


of


ethnicity


and


national


identity. Ethnicities, 11(1), 12-17.


Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Gellner, E. 1964. “Nationalism.” In Thought and Change. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. 147-178.

Geertz, C.: The Interpretation of Cultures. New York, Free Press, 1973.

Gellner, E.: Thought and Change. London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1964.

Gellner, E.: Encounters with Nationalism. Oxford, Blackwell, 1994.

Gellner, E.: Nationalism. London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1997.

Goffin, Richard D., and James M. Olson. 2011. "Is It All Relative? Comparative Judgments and the Possible Improvement of Self-Ratings and Ratings of Others." Perspectives on Psychological Science 6, no. 1: 1: 48

Gunther, J. (1955). Inside Africa. London: Hamilton.

Green, E. (2018). Ethnicity, national identity and the state: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. British Journal of Political Science, 1-23.

Hobsbawm, E. 1991. Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hutchinson, J., Smith, A.D. 1994. Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Kellas



67 | P a g e

Horowitz, D. L. (2000). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hecther, M.: Internal Colonialism. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.

Hecther, M.: "Rational Choice Theory and the Study of Ethnic and Race Relations"

in REX, J. and MASON, D. (eds.): Theories of Ethnic and Race Relations.

Cambridge, CUP, 1988.

Hecther, M.; Brustein, W.: "Regional Modes of Production and Patterns of State Formation in Europe", American Journal of Sociology 85/1980, p. 1061-1094.

Hobsbawm, E.; RANGER, T. (eds.): The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

İnaç, H., & Ünal, F. (2013). The construction of national identity in modern times: Theoretical perspective. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(11), 223-232.

Kersting, N. (2009). New nationalism and xenophobia in Africa–A new inclination?. Africa Spectrum, 44(1), 7-18.

Kuna, M. J. (1998). The Sokoto Caliphate, Colonialism and the Formation of Identities: The Construction of “Northern Nigeria”. Annals of Social Science Council of Nigeria, No. 10, January-December.

Langer, A. (2007). The Peaceful Management of Horizontal Inequalities in Ghana.

CRISE. Oxford.

Langer, A. (2010). The Situational Importance of Ethnicity and Religion in Ghana.

Ethno politics, 9(1), 9–29.







68 | P a g e

Laitin, D. 1986. Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change among the

Yoruba. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Laitin, D. 1992. Language Repertoires and State Construction in Africa.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laitin, D. and Posner, D. 2001. ‘The Implications of Constructivism for Constructing Ethnic Fractionalization Indices’ APSA_CP 12: 1-14

Laitin, David D. 1977. Politics, Language, and Thought. The Somali Experience.

London: University of Chicago Press.

Laitin, David D. 1998. Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in

the Near Abroad. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lange, Matthew K. 2004. British colonial legacies and political development.

World Development 32 (6): 905–22.

Langer, A. (2005). Horizontal Inequalities and Violent Group Mobilization in Côte d'Ivoire Oxford Development Studies, 33(1), 25-45.

Llobera, J. R. (1999). Recent theories of nationalism.

Mazrui, A.A. 1983. “Francophone nations and English-speaking states: imperial ethnicity and African political formations.” In D. Rothchild and V. A. Olorunsola, editors. State versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemma. Boulder, Colorado:Westview Press. pp. 25-43.

Mazrui, Ali A., 1990. Cultural Forces in World Politics. London: James Currey. 262 pp

Miguel, E. 2004. “Tribe or Nation? Nation-building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania.” World Politics, 56 (3): 327-362.


69 | P a g e

Melson, R., & Wolpe, H. (1970). Modernization and the Politicas of Cummunalism: A Theoretical Perspective. The American Political Science Review, 64(4), 1112–1130

Odeyemi, J. O. (2014). A Political History of Nigeria and the Crisis of Ethnicity in Nation-Building. International Journal of Developing Societies, 3, 85-101.

Palmberg, M. (Ed.). (1999). National identity and democracy in Africa (Vol. 95).

Nordic Africa Institute.

Patterson, O. (1980). Language, ethnicity, and change. Journal of basic Writing, 3(1), 62-73.

Posner, D. 2004. "The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi," American Political Science Review, 98, 4: 529-545.

Posner, D. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, A. L. (2014). National versus ethnic identification in Africa: Modernization, colonial legacy, and the origins of territorial nationalism. World Politics, 66(4), 709-746.

Rothchild, D. 1983. “Collective demands for improved distributions.” In D. Rothchild and V. A. Olorunsola, editors. State versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemma. Westview Press: London. pp. 172–198.

Rostow, W. W. (1990). The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist

Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.




70 | P a g e

Smith, A. D. 1981. Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. In Citizenship and National Identity from Colonization and Globalizm, ed. T.K. Oomen, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Smith, A.D. 1992. National Identity and the Idea of European Unity. International Affairs, 1.

Smith, A.D. 1995. Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. UK: Polity Press.

Smith, A.D.: Theories of Nationalism. London, Duckworth, 1983.

Smith, A.D.: National Identity. London, Penguin, 1991.

Smith, A.D.: Nationalism and Modernism. London, Routledge, 1998.

Toure, Sekou. 1959. toward Full Reafricanisation. Paris, France: Presence Afri caine.

Weber, E. 1976. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France,

1880–1914. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Weber, M. 1954. On Law in Economy and Society. Trans. by E. Shils. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.

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Фрагменты работ

ABSTRACT




In as much as Sub-Saharan African countries are not largely considered to be typical nation-states like European countries, there is some amount of contrasting features in the level of nationalism express by citizens. The main aim of this study is to find out the amount of variation in levels of nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa as explained by the existing theories of national and ethnic identity by comparing two countries namely Nigeria and Cote D’Ivoire. The research uses a correlational quantitative research design to conceivably measure the relationship between theories of nationalism and how it impacts levels of national identity. The study introduced the modernization theory to address the question of whether classic modernization theories actually explain the variation in the levels of nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results of the research concluded by supporting classic modernization theories that level of education, urbanization and being formally employed are all positively correlated to identifying with the nation. Other factors including the access to basic amenities, being part of core ethnic group and colonial legacy also affected levels of identifying within the state. Finally, the paper compares Nigeria and Cote D’Ivoire to dig out the differences and similarities and conclude by drawing lessons from the research.

Contents

ABSTRACT 2

DEDICATION 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 4

CHAPTER ONE (1) 7

1.0 INTRODUCTION 7

1.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM AND QUESTION 10

1.3 RESEARCH GOAL 12

1.4 NOVELTY OF RESEARCH 12

1.5 RATIONAL FOR CHOICE OF COUNTRIES 13

1.6 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE SELECTED COUNTRIES 13

1.6.1 FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA 14

1.6.2 NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA 15

1.6.3 REPUBLIC OF COTE D’IVOIRE: GENERAL BACKGROUND 17

1.6.4 NATIONAL IDENTITY IN COTE D’IVOIRE 19

CHAPTER TWO (2) LITERATURE REVIEW 23

2.0 CONSTRUCTION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY IN MODERN TIMES 23

2.2 COLONIAL LEGACY AND NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION 28

2.3 ETHNIC CORES AND STATE POWER 31

2.4 ETHNIC IDENTITY CRISIS IN AFRICA 33

2.5 LANGUAGE AND NATIONAL IDENTITY 35

2.6 NATIONAL IDENTITY AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION 37

2.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 38

2.7.1 MODERNIZATION THEORY 38

CHAPTER THREE (3) METHODOLOGY 44

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 44

3.2 CORRELATIONAL QUANTITATIVE METHOD 44

3.3 DATA ACQUISITION METHOD 45

3.4 DATA ANALYSIS 45

3.4.1 MEASURING VARIABLES 47

CHAPTER FOUR (4) 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 50

Table.1 Logic Regression Model at Aggregate level (Both Countries) 50



5 | P a g e

Table 2 Logistic model for ethnic or national identity, goodness-of-fit test 51

4.0.1 Comparison 55

Table 3 55

Table 5 Logic Regression Model 59

4.0.1.0 LIMITATIONS 61

CHAPTER (5) 63

5.0 CONCLUSION 63

REFERENCES 65

APPENDIX: 72

DESCRIPTIVE TABLE COTE D’IVOIRE 72

DESCRIPTIVE TABLE NIGERIA 75

Добрый день! Уважаемые студенты, Вашему вниманию представляется дипломная работа на тему: «NATIONAL VRS ETHNIC IDENTITY IN POST COLONIAL SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NIGERIA & COTE D’VOIRE»
Оригинальность работы 93%

REFERENCES



Afrobarometer (2018). Available online at www.afrobarometer.org.

Anderson, B. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread

of Nationalism. London: Verso Press.

Anderson, B. 1989. Imagined Communitties: Reflections on the Origins and

Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.

Azam, J. 2001. “The redistributive state and conflicts in Africa.” Journal of Peace Research, 38(4):429.

Ahlerup, P., & Isaksson, A. S. (2015). Ethno‐Regional Favouritism in S ub‐S aharan A frica. Kyklos, 68(2), 143-152.

Bates, R. 1983. “Modernization, Ethnic Competition, and the Rationality of Politics in Contemporary Africa.” In D. Rothchild and V.A. Olorunsola, Eds. State

versus Ethnic Claims: Africa Policy Dilemma. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. pp. 152-171

Barrett, M. (1996). English children’s acquisition of a European identity. InG. L.

Breakwell& E. Lyons (Eds.),Changing European identities: Social psychological

analysis of social change (pp. 349–369). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann

Barrett, M. (2005). National identities in children and young people. In S. Ding & K. Littleton (Eds.), Children’s personal and social development (pp. 181–220). Milton Keynes: The Open University/Blackwell.

Barrett, M., & Davis, S. C. (2008). Applying social identity and self-categorization

theories to children’s racial, ethnic, national and state identifications and attitudes.





65 | P a g e

In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism and the developing child (pp. 72–110). Hoboken: Wiley.

Breuilly, J.: Nationalism and the State. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1982 1993.

Collier, Paul 2009. Wars, Guns, and Votes. New York, N.Y.: Harper

Deutsch, Karl W. 1953. Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. Cambridge.

Deutsch, K. W. (1961). Social Mobilization and Political Development. The American Political Science Review, 55(3), 493–514.

Doob, L. W. (1962). From tribalism to nationalism in Africa. Journal of International Affairs, 144-155.

Eifert, B., E. Miguel, and D. Posner. 2008. “Political Competition and Ethnic Identification in Africa.” Unpublished manuscript.

Engelbert, P. 2000. State Legitimacy and Development in Africa. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Engelbert, P., S. Tarango, and M. Carter. 2002. “Dismemberment and Suffocation: A Contribution to the Debate on African Boundaries.” Comparative Political Studies, 35 (10): 1093-1118

Engelbert, Pierre. 2002. State Legitimacy and Development in Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner

Fearon, J. and D. Laitin. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review, 97: 75-90.





66 | P a g e

Fearon, J., K. Kasara, and D. Laitin. 2007. “Ethnic Minority Rule and Civil War Onset.” American Political Science Review, 101: 187-193.

Fearon, J. D. (2003). Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 195-222


Fenton, S. (2011). The


sociology


of


ethnicity


and


national


identity. Ethnicities, 11(1), 12-17.


Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Gellner, E. 1964. “Nationalism.” In Thought and Change. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. 147-178.

Geertz, C.: The Interpretation of Cultures. New York, Free Press, 1973.

Gellner, E.: Thought and Change. London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1964.

Gellner, E.: Encounters with Nationalism. Oxford, Blackwell, 1994.

Gellner, E.: Nationalism. London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1997.

Goffin, Richard D., and James M. Olson. 2011. "Is It All Relative? Comparative Judgments and the Possible Improvement of Self-Ratings and Ratings of Others." Perspectives on Psychological Science 6, no. 1: 1: 48

Gunther, J. (1955). Inside Africa. London: Hamilton.

Green, E. (2018). Ethnicity, national identity and the state: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. British Journal of Political Science, 1-23.

Hobsbawm, E. 1991. Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hutchinson, J., Smith, A.D. 1994. Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Kellas



67 | P a g e

Horowitz, D. L. (2000). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hecther, M.: Internal Colonialism. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.

Hecther, M.: "Rational Choice Theory and the Study of Ethnic and Race Relations"

in REX, J. and MASON, D. (eds.): Theories of Ethnic and Race Relations.

Cambridge, CUP, 1988.

Hecther, M.; Brustein, W.: "Regional Modes of Production and Patterns of State Formation in Europe", American Journal of Sociology 85/1980, p. 1061-1094.

Hobsbawm, E.; RANGER, T. (eds.): The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

İnaç, H., & Ünal, F. (2013). The construction of national identity in modern times: Theoretical perspective. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(11), 223-232.

Kersting, N. (2009). New nationalism and xenophobia in Africa–A new inclination?. Africa Spectrum, 44(1), 7-18.

Kuna, M. J. (1998). The Sokoto Caliphate, Colonialism and the Formation of Identities: The Construction of “Northern Nigeria”. Annals of Social Science Council of Nigeria, No. 10, January-December.

Langer, A. (2007). The Peaceful Management of Horizontal Inequalities in Ghana.

CRISE. Oxford.

Langer, A. (2010). The Situational Importance of Ethnicity and Religion in Ghana.

Ethno politics, 9(1), 9–29.







68 | P a g e

Laitin, D. 1986. Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change among the

Yoruba. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Laitin, D. 1992. Language Repertoires and State Construction in Africa.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laitin, D. and Posner, D. 2001. ‘The Implications of Constructivism for Constructing Ethnic Fractionalization Indices’ APSA_CP 12: 1-14

Laitin, David D. 1977. Politics, Language, and Thought. The Somali Experience.

London: University of Chicago Press.

Laitin, David D. 1998. Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in

the Near Abroad. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lange, Matthew K. 2004. British colonial legacies and political development.

World Development 32 (6): 905–22.

Langer, A. (2005). Horizontal Inequalities and Violent Group Mobilization in Côte d'Ivoire Oxford Development Studies, 33(1), 25-45.

Llobera, J. R. (1999). Recent theories of nationalism.

Mazrui, A.A. 1983. “Francophone nations and English-speaking states: imperial ethnicity and African political formations.” In D. Rothchild and V. A. Olorunsola, editors. State versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemma. Boulder, Colorado:Westview Press. pp. 25-43.

Mazrui, Ali A., 1990. Cultural Forces in World Politics. London: James Currey. 262 pp

Miguel, E. 2004. “Tribe or Nation? Nation-building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania.” World Politics, 56 (3): 327-362.


69 | P a g e

Melson, R., & Wolpe, H. (1970). Modernization and the Politicas of Cummunalism: A Theoretical Perspective. The American Political Science Review, 64(4), 1112–1130

Odeyemi, J. O. (2014). A Political History of Nigeria and the Crisis of Ethnicity in Nation-Building. International Journal of Developing Societies, 3, 85-101.

Palmberg, M. (Ed.). (1999). National identity and democracy in Africa (Vol. 95).

Nordic Africa Institute.

Patterson, O. (1980). Language, ethnicity, and change. Journal of basic Writing, 3(1), 62-73.

Posner, D. 2004. "The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi," American Political Science Review, 98, 4: 529-545.

Posner, D. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, A. L. (2014). National versus ethnic identification in Africa: Modernization, colonial legacy, and the origins of territorial nationalism. World Politics, 66(4), 709-746.

Rothchild, D. 1983. “Collective demands for improved distributions.” In D. Rothchild and V. A. Olorunsola, editors. State versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemma. Westview Press: London. pp. 172–198.

Rostow, W. W. (1990). The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist

Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.




70 | P a g e

Smith, A. D. 1981. Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. In Citizenship and National Identity from Colonization and Globalizm, ed. T.K. Oomen, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Smith, A.D. 1992. National Identity and the Idea of European Unity. International Affairs, 1.

Smith, A.D. 1995. Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. UK: Polity Press.

Smith, A.D.: Theories of Nationalism. London, Duckworth, 1983.

Smith, A.D.: National Identity. London, Penguin, 1991.

Smith, A.D.: Nationalism and Modernism. London, Routledge, 1998.

Toure, Sekou. 1959. toward Full Reafricanisation. Paris, France: Presence Afri caine.

Weber, E. 1976. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France,

1880–1914. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Weber, M. 1954. On Law in Economy and Society. Trans. by E. Shils. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.

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Отзыв fomcha об авторе BESKONECHNO 2017-11-02
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Надеюсь продолжить работу с этим обязательным, пунктуальным, глубоко понимающим тему и специфику человеком.

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Отзыв Posida об авторе BESKONECHNO 2019-05-01
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Отличный автор!

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Отзыв Alena Alex об авторе BESKONECHNO 2019-01-01
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Алена, вы ЛУЧШАЯ! Нет слов, чтобы отблагодарить вас за проделанную работу!! Заказываю работы на данном сервисе больше 3х лет и только сейчас нашла СВОЕГО автора. На работу был день времени. На ДИПЛОМ!! Алена сделала все в лучшем виде. Преподаватель(очень требовательный, с придирками даже к лишним пробелами) похвалил мою работу перед всеми группами и поставил в пример как в оформлении и так и в правильном изложении содержания. Я в восторге.))!! Алена была на связи 24 часа. Отвечала на все вопросы. Успокаивала( а нервы были реально на пределе из-за того, что работу нужно было завтра сдавать, а нету даже норм плана, так как предыдущий автор подвёл и сказал, что не смог выполнить, придумал кучу отмазок ). Аленочка - я ваш должник!!!!! Такой как вы я не встречала за годы работы с сайтом( а заказывала более 80 работ от сочинений до диплома). Спасибо вам огромное!! Даже не знаю как можно выразить восхищение вашими способностями и человеческими качествами. Вы самая лучшая!! Извините, за такой сумбурный отзыв, пишу на эмоциях от радости сдачи диплома)) Так как из группы 24 человек сдали только 3 и я в их числе.)) Всё благодаря Вам! СПАСИБООООО!

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Отзыв stunet0518 об авторе BESKONECHNO 2019-06-27
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Работа выполнена на высочайшем уровне!!! Автор полностью справился с поставленной задачей!!! В качестве бонуса (как я понял) за задержку сделал дополнительно речь и презентацию для защиты, что не может не радовать!!! Однако, огорчили сроки...очень затянул автор со сдачей.... В остальном - замечаний нет! Всё прекрасно!!! Рекомендую! Большое спасибо!!!

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